The state of biodiversity has been in the news again these past few weeks, with high-profile reports like the Global Biodiversity Outlook 5 (by the United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity) and Living Planet Report 2020 (by the Zoological Society of London and World Wildlife Fund) generating depressing headlines. Among Earth’s fragile natural systems, freshwater ecosystems consistently emerge as some of the most threatened.
And yet, the ability for freshwater ecosystems and species to recover when remedial action is taken is incredibly exciting. Synchronicity Earth has been supporting freshwater conservation almost since its inception, and has witnessed extraordinary organisations making unprecedented successes. Conservation works, we just need more of it, and if we can scale up our efforts to protect freshwater for all the species dependent on it, including ourselves, these trends can be reversed.
Some of the figures on freshwater make for grim reading: 90 per cent of global wetlands have been lost since 1700, and they are being destroyed three times faster than our rainforests. The average abundance of 3,741 freshwater populations, representing 944 species, monitored across the globe declined by 84 per cent on average between 1970 and 2016. Only 37 per cent of rivers longer than 1,000 kilometres remain free-flowing over their entire length and 23 per cent flow uninterrupted to the ocean.
However, hard as these figures are to accept, they provide us with essential evidence to highlight the significant investment required to address such problems. This is one of the reasons why a key strand of our Freshwater Programme is advancing knowledge on freshwater species and ecosystems.
Thanks to the decades of research showcased in these recent reports, we have some understanding of the highest priority regions and species, as well as the threats driving the declines, which are essential to direct conservation efforts. For example, the biggest declines in freshwater species are seen in amphibians, reptiles, and fishes.
All this research has been culminated in a six-point Emergency Recovery Plan by a global team of scientists from WWF, International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), Conservation International, Cardiff University and other eminent organisations and academic institutions. Each priority action in the plan has already been implemented successfully in one or more situations across the globe, providing proof of concept and lessons that can inform scaling-up of actions.
Six priority global actions to bend the curve of freshwater biodiversity loss that should be reflected in the post2020 biodiversity framework. Image: Living Planet Report 2020 Deep Dive into Freshwater, ZSL and WWF.
Large-scale national and international successes are entirely possible
Although we have created artificial borders to divide the Earth into countries, seas and oceans with invisible borders marked on maps, our waterways do not obey them. Therefore, one of the greatest challenges facing freshwater conservation is to implement large-scale action at a national and international level.
There have already been examples of this being achieved under the various steps of the Emergency Recovery Plan:
Allow rivers to flow more naturally
According to Dam Removal Europe, almost 5,000 dams have already been removed across the continent and, according to American Rivers, more than 1,500 in the United States.
The European Union Urban Waste Water Treatment Directive has led to widespread reduction in sewage pollution.
Protecting critical wetland habitats
Approximately 60,000 hectares of floodplain wetlands have been restored along the lower Danube River as a result of an international agreement signed by ministers from Bulgaria, Romania, Moldova, and Ukraine.
Ending overfishing and unsustainable aggregate (sand, gravel, crushed rock) mining
Some of the examples by countries successfully tackling freshwater exploitation issues are Malawi’s Ecosystem Approach to Fisheries Management, community fisheries management within the Juruá River’s oxbow lakes in the Brazilian Amazon, reduction of platypus bycatch in Australia with adapted fishing equipment, aggregate waste recycling systems in Germany and India and improved regulation of riverine aggregate extraction in the UK.
Controlling invasive species
Prevention of non-native carp species invasions in the Great Lakes of the United States and Canada has successfully used a combination of scientific risk assessments, prohibition of live fish transport, and an electrical barrier.
Safeguarding and restoring connectivity
A strategic environmental assessment for hydropower planning has been undertaken in Myanmar that has recommended keeping the main stems of the Irrawaddy and Salween rivers free flowing.
“The bigger the size, the bigger the threats,” says the Living Planet Report, regarding freshwater ‘megafauna’. Freshwater megafauna are species that grow to more than 30 kg, such as sturgeon and Mekong giant catfish, river dolphins, otters, beavers and hippos, and they seem to be particularly at risk due to changes in their environment. Recovery can also take longer, as they often reproduce at a later stage in life and have fewer offspring.
However, as we explored in this blog about freshwater ‘pandas’, these megafauna are often the most charismatic creatures of the rivers, and they can inspire widespread action and awareness for the rest of their ecosystem. One example of an international effort to save a freshwater megafauna species is the reintroduction of the