With public interest in environmental issues higher than it has been for years, it is important to maintain the momentum and build on people’s understanding and motivation to protect our natural world. Nina Seale explores how environmental films have been used to engage people to make a difference for the environment.
On the deck of a beautiful French ship, sailors are sitting completely still, watching a swallow resting on the planks.
This is the memorable closing shot from a short film called Le tombeau des épuisés (Tomb of the exhausted), surprise winner of the Audience Favourite at the Good Natured Film Festival. With its slow pace, hushed French narration and subtle music, it didn’t feel like a typical conservation film. However, its power lay in its ability to remind the audience of their own experiences; the connections we create with nature, no matter where we are.
When was the last time you were moved by a film or documentary? Can you think of any which have made you reconsider your beliefs, or change your behaviour? What about environment films- when you think of an impactful environment film, what do you think of? Why do you think it made an impact? What is impact?
So… what is impact?
One answer would be change- a beautiful, moving film is distributed to a wide and diverse audience who will duly be inspired and care enough about the cause to take action.
But impact is complicated to plan, predict and measure. A film’s purpose could be to bring an unknown issue to the global spotlight, in which case reach and public sympathy would count as effective impact (e.g. Virunga shedding light on the threats of war, poaching and oil exploration on the Democratic Republic of Congo’s Virunga National Park). But if a film is re-addressing a well-known issue, the impact would be further along the chain: looking at creating systems change (e.g. Blue Planet II inspiring viewers to move away from single-use plastics).
So, when creating their story and impact plan, filmmakers need to truly understand what what change would look like, who would implement it, and how, in order to make a film that will really make a difference.
The right audience
An important part of this is audience. Is the film aiming for widespread behaviour change (a larger, more diverse audience) or specific actions such as policy change or changing the practices of an industry? Will the film reach the right people, or is the film asking the audience to put pressure on decision-makers?
An example of a far more targeted and bottom-up approach is the campaign surrounding the 2012 documentary about climate change Chasing Ice. Their strategy was to take the film to one community (Ohio’s 12th congressional district, United States) and use it as a tool to engage the public to change the mind of their Congressman, known climate change denier Pat Tiberi, who consequently made a statement about the global importance of climate action.
It is all very well to shed light on an issue, but a million views in the United States for a film about an issue happening on the other side of the world is perhaps not the best way to direct local change and can alienate the subjects of the film.
Even though many of the factors which determine impact happen after the film is made (distribution, media coverage, lobbying etc.), the film itself has to stir the audience. For this, the film needs to create an emotional connection between the audience and the subject/s, and often this requires focussing on the story of one, or a select few, individuals.
Thank You For The Rain is an example of a film which used the story of one man, Kenyan smallholder farmer and environmentalist Kisilu Musya, to humanise the climate crisis. The film had a very ambitious impact strategy. It delivered extraordinary results, both on a local scale with Musya’s fellow Kenyans and on a global scale, closing the gap between Musya and international influencers, policymakers, funders, and institutional leaders to facilitate global systems change and support local climate action in Kenya.
But how did it manage to engage the emotions of such different audiences? The founder of the project, Norwegian filmmaker Julia Dahr, decided to make Musya a co-director and therefore have creative control. He was empowered to tell his own story, and so each viewer of their diverse target audience experienced the crippling drought and following violent storm which tore his home apart through his eyes.
Creating such a connection with a previously unknown individual is an incredible feat. Many high-budget environmental films use well-known faces to establish a personal connection with their audience, such as An Inconvenient Truth (Al Gore), Before the flood (Leonardo di Caprio), and Our Planet (Sir David Attenborough). In addition to giving the film credibility, it also gives them an edge on distribution, as the well-known name can attract a much larger audience.
Nothing stands alone
There are many beautiful and emotive films about social and environmental issues which have come and gone without creating much of a ripple, or the desired impact. Even if a film is widely watched, nothing stands alone. When examining the films which have created the biggest impact, almost all of them are supported by campaign/s that may have been going on for years before release (e.g. Blue Planet II), and/or drive action after (e.g. Blackfish).