We know so little about our ocean, we can’t even guess the number of zeroes we need to measure marine life.
There are currently approximately 200,000 described marine species (about 11 per cent of all described species). But there could be more than 10 million.
However, we do know that the vast accumulation of life which has evolved and flourished in our ocean plays a very important role in how we experience life on land.
Coastal forests such as mangroves provide important protection to terrestrial ecosystems from events such as tsunamis. Image: Jamie Patra CC BY-NC-ND 2.0
The role of ocean biodiversity
An example of the effect that losing marine life can have on land can be observed with seagrass meadows. When seagrass meadows are lost, it can affect temperature and sea level, as well as the frequency of storms and hurricanes. More broadly, when coastal ecosystems collapse, there are declines in local fish catch and water quality, as well as increased coastal flooding and harmful algal blooms. In the 2004 tsunami, areas buffered by coastal forests were less damaged than areas without.
But due to the difficulty of studying our planet’s marine diversity, we cannot boast that we understand all the complex relationships between marine life great and small, the seafloor, and the aquatic environment itself.
Sperm whales dive more than 6,000 feet in pursuit of prey and much about their ecology is still unknown, and yet commercial sperm whaling from the early 18th century is estimated to have reduced the global population by approximately 73 per cent. Image © iStock
Mysteries of the ocean
There are many examples of people exploiting ocean resources before understanding the consequences of their activities. One well-known cautionary tale is that of whaling, which has crippled many populations of whales around the world (the pre-whaling population of blue whales in the Southern Hemisphere was about 250,000, and there are now estimated to be fewer than 1,500). The decline in great whale numbers due to whaling is estimated to be at least 66 per cent and perhaps as high as 90 per cent.
So, we already came devastatingly close to losing our whales while having barely scratched the surface of understanding their ecological importance. A 2019 study published an estimate of the economic value of a great whale based on carbon capture, whale watching, and impact on the food chain, at more than USD 2 million.